PUFA dangers Part 4: Influence on Cellular & Thyroid function and Diabetes

Polyunsaturated fat (PUFAs), when incorporated into cell membranes, make cells more fluid, are chaotropic and disorderly and reduce their function (1). The increase in fluidity will allow more water, sodium, chloride, and calcium into the cell (edema), and lower intracellular potassium and magnesium and this will also destabilize the cell, and reduce cellular function (2). Metabolic … Continue reading PUFA dangers Part 4: Influence on Cellular & Thyroid function and Diabetes

MCT oil, liquid rocket fuel

Medium-chain triglyceride (MCT) oil is commonly known for its potent ability to aid in fat loss. However, this oil contains much more benefits, which I will discuss in this article. First and foremost, fatty acids can be divided into four groups. These are short-chain- (SCFAs), medium chain- (MCFAs), long chain- (LCFAs) and very long chain … Continue reading MCT oil, liquid rocket fuel

Does Niacinamide contribute to diabetes and insulin resistance?

Vitamin B3 comes in a few forms, with niacin (nicotinic acid (NA)), niacinamide (NAM), nicotinamide riboside (NR) and inositol hexanicotinate being the most famous. As you can see from the picture, vitamin B3 can come in three forms from the diet, namely NA, NAM and NR, whereas an endogenous pathway can also synthesize NAM from … Continue reading Does Niacinamide contribute to diabetes and insulin resistance?

Different fats and inflammation

Let me just start off by saying that fat gain happens mostly in the presence of caloric excess (when more calories are consumed than is being burned). For healthy adipose tissue expansion, there needs to be acute inflammation, collagen remodeling and growth of new blood vessels (angiogenesis). Without these factors, healthy fat gain cannot take … Continue reading Different fats and inflammation

Reactive oxygen species created by fats and their affect on insulin signalling

Does fat make you fat? And if the answer is yes then which type of fat is the guilty one? Fat mass expansion in obesity occurs via adipocyte hyperplasia (increased adipocyte number) and/or adipocyte hypertrophy (increased size of adipocytes). The latter is often associated with adipose dysfunction and inflammation. Increased adipocyte size correlates with serum … Continue reading Reactive oxygen species created by fats and their affect on insulin signalling

Omega 6 busts your electron transport chain

The mitochondria, also called the "powerhouse" of the cells, is where ATP is made. Cells use fats, carbohydrates and sometimes a little protein to create energy. These macronutrients are broken down in the cell to provide electrons for the electron transport chain, creating a mitochondrial membrane potential (Δψm). Complex I, III, & IV, powered by … Continue reading Omega 6 busts your electron transport chain

Excessive fat oxidation (β-oxidation) drives diabetes

An association between intracellular fat accumulation and insulin resistance has been found. But an associated is not a cause... The hypothesis was that β-oxidation is too slow and as a result, fats start to accumulate in the cells and this causes insulin resistance, thus the inability to transport glucose into the cell and reduced glucose oxidation. … Continue reading Excessive fat oxidation (β-oxidation) drives diabetes

Polyunsaturated fats, cardiolipin and ATP production

From the previous article: "the rate of substrate oxidation in resting muscle is not determined/limited by mitochondrial oxidative capacity, but by the rate of ATP breakdown/ADP formation, which is regulated by the cells' need for energy" The mitochondria can only make ATP if there is ADP and a phosphate present. The complex V in the … Continue reading Polyunsaturated fats, cardiolipin and ATP production

Metabolic efficiency is more important than mitochondrial quantity

It has been hypothesized that insulin resistance in patients with impaired, or diabetic glucose tolerance, is mediated by a deficiency of mitochondria in skeletal muscle. But it turns out that it's not necessarily the case. This is because type 2 diabetics and insulin-resistant individuals, with impaired glucose tolerance, have ≈30% less mitochondria and 38% lower mitochondrial … Continue reading Metabolic efficiency is more important than mitochondrial quantity